S-75 Dvina (NATO: SA-2 Guideline)
anti-aircraft rocket system
Soviet anti-aircraft rocket system SA-75 goes back in its roots to the mid fifties. It became one of the most popular and widely used of the kind. Different version of this system served in majority of the local conflicts which took place in the 1960s, the 1970s, the 1980s and the 1990s.
The S-75, mid-range anti aircraft rocket system was designed basing on the technical assumptions and service experiences of the S-25 Berkut - a monstrous, stationary, Moscow defence system from the 1950s , consisting of 3000 anti-aircraft rocket launchers. The new S-75 was not assigned to any specific object but featured a mobility of all its modules. It changed with the service experiences gained and the progress in electronics.
The design started with the resolution issued in 1953, by the Soviet Union Board of Ministers. Construction of the system was designed by the KB-1 Construction Bureau led by engineer Respletin in co-operation with the OKB-2 Experimental and Construction Bureau led by engineer Grushin, responsible for the rocket design. As a result of intensive works, in February 1955, the experimental variant was ready to test on the artillery range. In April of the same year, the first W-750 was launched. In September and October 1957, the mobile complex consisted of 6, trucks carried modules was tested. This complex, named the S-75 Dvina was introduced into service on 11th December 1957. In the S-75M export variant, the entire system was moved on a trailers. It consisted of six launchers and was enabled to fire three rockets into one target every 6 seconds. The reloading took 3 minutes and was done by a special crane truck.
The S-75 Dvina system was introduced into the Polish aerospace defence system in 1963. Later it was complemented with the S-75 M Volkhov. The both systems were written off the service in the nineties. In 1995 Russians issued a proposal to the S-75 operators, of utilising the system to the modern war requirements.